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Microarray & protein chips categories & taxonomy
Evolving Terminology for Emerging Technologies
Comments? Questions? Revisions? Mary Chitty
Last revised January 09, 2020

Technologies term index   Related glossaries include Microarrays   Protein arrays/microarrays are in Protein technologies  Cell and tissue arrays are in Cell & Tissue Technologies

Microarray technologies have become an invaluable tool for drug discovery as well as for diagnostics. Microarrays are being used to find new drug targets as well as developing personalized medicine in a fast and affordable manner. However, many challenges of the technology remain --  quality control, expression arrays and pharmacokinetics will be addressed as well as new developments in the field, such as microRNA arrays and DNA methylation.

Affymetrix GeneChipsTM: Oligonucleotide arrays in which the oligonucleotides are synthesized directly on the chip using a photolithography process. 

antibody arrays, antibody microarrays:
Used for studying regulation at the protein level  Related terms: protein arrays, protein chips, protein microarrays   

arrays: Narrower terms include bead arrays, bead based arrays, bioarrays, bioelectronic arrays, cDNA arrays, cell arrays, DNA arrays,  gene arrays, gene expression arrays, frozen cell arrays, genome arrays,  high density oligonucleotide arrays, hybridization arrays, microcantilever arrays, microelectronic arrays, multiplex DNA hybridization arrays,  nanoarrays, oligonucleotide arrays, oligosaccharide arrays, planar arrays, protein arrays, solution arrays, spotted arrays, tissue arrays, exon arrays, filter arrays, macroarrays, small molecule microarrays, suspension arrays, theme arrays, tiling arrays, transcript arrays.  Related terms: arrayed library.  See also chips, microarrays.

bead arrays: These arrays are made up of small beads containing capture oligonucleotides encoded with fluorescent dye combinations or through some equivalent means. Relative to conventional two- dimensional microarrays, the bead arrays have larger surface- to- volume ratios, providing faster hybridization kinetics, and they also offer much more flexibility and scalability in assay design. Google = about 241 July 10, 2002; about 598 Sept. 16, 2003 Narrower/equivalent? term: encoded bead arrays.

bead based arrays: Arrays in which reactions take place on the surface of microbeads. These arrays can contain hundreds of thousands to millions of individual probes, making them perhaps the most promising technology for the vast number of tests that will be needed for applications such as drug discovery and for diagnosis and treatment of patients.  Related terms bead arrays; Microarrays : fiber optics.   Google = about 38 July 10, 2002; about 150 Sept.. 16, 2003

biochips: An integrated circuit whose electrical and logical functions are performed by protein molecules appropriately manipulated. IUPAC Biotech
Google = about 16,800 July 10, 2002; about 36,800 Sept. 16, 2003

bioelectronic arrays: See under  microelectronic arrays  Google = about 6, Sept. 16, 2003

boutique arrays: Small scale specialty or 'boutique' array, where large proportions of the genes on the microarrays are expected to be highly differentially expressed. DL Wilson et. al New normalization methods for cDNA microarray data, Bioinformatics. 2003 Jul 22;19(11): 1325-1332  
Google = about 14 Sept. 16, 2003; about 9 Feb. 28, 2005 
Related term: designer microarrays

categories -- microarrays :  Numerous types of microarrays are in common use today, but for our purposes, it suffices to categorize them into three main groups: spotted cDNA microarrays, spotted oligonucleotide microarrays, and Affymetrix GeneChips, which are sufficiently unique to warrant their own grouping. In the spotted- array categories, we include both traditional arrays produced using contact printing in the style of Pat Brown (Stanford University), and ones produced using the newer ink- jet technology pioneered in the laboratory of  Lee Hood of the University of Washington and developed to commercial fruition by Rosetta Inpharmatics and Agilent Technologies.

Current DNA array formats can be categorized into various groups based on the type of matrix, the probe number and/or density, the physical size of the array, and the type of target labeling. The general categories we describe are macroarrays, microarrays, high- density oligonucleotide arrays (e.g., Affymetrix’s GeneChips), and microelectronic arrays.  

cDNA arrays A microscopic, ordered array of nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, cells or other substances that enables parallel analysis of complex biochemical samples. [Mark Schena et al. "Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray" Science 270, 467-470 Oct. 20 1995] Google = about 2,610 July 10, 2002; about 9, 760 Sept. 16, 2003 Related terms: DNA chips, macroarrays; Microarrays: arrayed library

cDNA microarrays: DNA microarrays in which the DNA used for the probe is extracted from cDNA clones, such as those used to sequence ESTs.  
Google = about 4,700 July 10, 2002; about 16,800 Sept. 16, 2003

cell biochips, cell chips, cell microarrays: Cell & tissue technologies

chips:  A quartz or silicon substrate, generally either part of a quartz or silicon wafer, less than 500 um in thickness.  “Although the single chip approach is attractive, it is not critical that all unit operations be performed on the chip.  Important operations, including sample preparation, preliminary reactions, piezoelectric sample deposition and mass spectrometry frequently can, or must, be done with off- chip devices. .. Integrating all these components … is perhaps the most important issue. [F Regnier et al “Chromatography and electrophoresis on chips” Trends in Biotechnology 17:101 March 1999] 

The term chip originally referred to the Affymetrix GeneChip. In many cases microarray, array, and chip can be used interchangeably, except when it is important to distinguish between the spotted and Affymetrix approaches.

chromatin array:  To enable the simultaneous measurement of the global chromatin accessibility state at the resolution of single genes, we developed the Chromatin Array technique, in which chromatin is separated by its condensation state using either the solubility differences of mono- and oligonucleosomes in specific buffers or controlled DNase I digestion and selection of the large refractory (condensed) DNA fragments. By probing with a comparative genomic hybridization style microarray, we can determine the condensation state of thousands of individual loci and correlate this with transcriptional activity. MR Weil et. al, Global survey of chromatin accessibility using DNA microarrays, Genome Research, 14(7): 1374- 1381, July 2004 Google = about 78, July 12, 2004; about 93 Feb. 28, 2005

DNA arrays: We generally will use the generic terms "DNA array" or "hybridization array" when we are referring broadly to all types of arrays. ... Regardless of nomenclature, each DNA array experiment is conducted in essentially the same manner (Figure 11). First, an array of gene- specific probes is created or obtained. (While a growing number of institutions and companies are creating their own arrays, most research is now conducted with commercially- available arrays.) Nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) are then isolated from biological samples (blood or tissue). These nucleic acids are converted into labeled targets through one of several methods.  ... The labeled targets are then incubated with the solid- state probes, allowing targets to hybridize with probes in a high- fidelity manner. This hybridization is of the classic A/T and G/C variety. .. After the incubation, nonhybridized samples are washed away, and measurements are made of the signal (dye fluorescence or radioactivity) that is produced when hybridization occurs at particular probe locations  Google = about 6520 July 10, 2002; about 15,600 Sept. 16, 2003; about 19,200 June 21, 2004

DNA chips: Also referred to as "microarrays." Non- porous solid supports, such as glass have facilitated miniaturization and fluorescence based detection. About 10,000 cDNAs can be robotically spotted onto a microscope slide and hybridized with a double labeled probe, using protocols pioneered by Pat Brown and colleagues [at Stanford University] [Eric Lander "Array of hope" Nature Genetics 21 (1s): 3-4 Jan 1999] Google = about 10,700 July 10, 2002; about 23,000 Sept. 16, 2003; about 26,800 June 21, 2004  Related term hybridization arrays

DNA microarrays: The most common genomic method used to measure gene expression levels. DNA microarrays consist of a small solid support (such as a glass slide, nylon membrane, or silicon wafer) with an ordered array of DNA fragments attached to it. Other names in the literature include biochips, DNA chips and gene arrays. CHA Cambridge Healthtech Advisors, Clinical Genomics: The Impact of Genomics on Clinical Trials and Medical Practice report, 2004 Google = about 13,100 July 10, 2002; about 45,000 Sept. 16, 2003; about 64,300 June 21, 2004
DNA microarray: Wikipedia 

DNA microchip: A revolutionary new tool used to identify mutations in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2. The chip, which consists of a small glass plate encased in plastic, is manufactured somewhat like a computer microchip. On the surface, each chip contains thousands of short, synthetic, single- stranded DNA sequences, which together, add up to the normal gene in question. NHGRI, US "What is a DNA chip?" "What is it used for? "How does it work?" Google = about 938 Sept. 16, 2003

exon arrays: Used to confirm predicted exons, described in D.D. Shoemaker et. al "Experimental annotation of the human genome using microarray technology" Nature 409, 922-927, 15 Feb. 2001. Related term: tiling arrays  Google = about 24 July 10, 2002; about 45 Sept. 16, 2003

filter arrays: Filters on which clones or purified cDNAs have been arrayed at high density to provide targets for reverse- transcribed probes. [D Bowtell “Options available – from start to finish — for obtaining expression data by microarray” Nature Genetics 20 (1s): 25- 32 Jan 1999]
Google = about 893 July 10, 2002; about 2,190 Sept. 16, 2003

gene arrays, gene microarrays: See  DNA chip, DNA arrays, DNA microarrays 
Google = "gene arrays" about 3,490 July 10, 2002; about  15,800 Sept. 16, 2003
Google = "gene microarrays" about 472 July 10, 2002; about 1,540  Sept. 16, 2003

GeneChip   is an Affymetrix product. Steve Fodor and colleagues [at Affymetrix] have adapted photo- lithographic masking techniques used in semiconductor manufacture to produce arrays with 400,000 distinct oligonucleotides. Eric Lander "Array of hope" Nature Genetics 21(1s): 3- 4, Jan 1999 Related terms genome chip, genomic arrays, genomic microarrays.
Google = about 7,010 July 10, 2002: about 19,600  Sept. 16, 2003 

genome arrays:
The sequencing of complete genomes has made possible whole genome arrays of bacteria and other organisms.  Affymetrix has made E. coli, yeast and Arabidopsis genome arrays. Used for the study of gene expression and to determine co- regulated genes. Google = about 211 July 10, 2002; about 791  Sept. 16, 2003; about 1,670 July 23, 2004

genome chip: Technology is meant to monitor the whole genome on a single chip. GenomeChip would also include the increasingly important and feasible protein chip technology. [Leming Shi “DNA Microarrays” 1998- 2002]  Google = about 108 July 10, 2002; about 894  Sept. 16, 2003; about 776  July 23, 2004  Related terms genome arrays, genomic arrays, genomic microarrays.

genomic microarrays:  The current methodological approach for the construction of genomic arrays is dominated by the use of genomic clones (BACs, PACs and cosmids) as targets for array hybridization. [These are] only the beginning of a new generation of high - resolution and high - throughput tools for genetic analysis.  KK Mantripragada et. al "Genomic microarrays in the spotlight, Drug Discovery Today Microarray supplement 9(24): S45-S52, 15 Dec. 2004  Google = about 905 July 10, 2002; about 517 Sept. 16, 2003; about 4,450 Dec. 13, 2004 
Related terms genome arrays, genome chip, genomic arrays. 

GPCR microarrays: The dominance of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as a drug target class, coupled with the increased pace of target identification and expansion of compound libraries, presents a compelling need to develop technologies to screen multiple GPCRs simultaneously. To address this need, GPCR microarrays that require the co-immobilization of lipid molecules and the probe receptors of interest have been fabricated, using conventional robotic printing technologies. Y. Fang et. al, G protein-coupled receptor microarrays for drug discovery, Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnology 83:189- 209, 2003 

high density oligonucleotide arrays: High- density oligonucleotide arrays differ from other formats in that the probe is generated in situ on the surface of the matrix as opposed to being generated separately and then spotted on the surface. Affymetrix has historically led the way in this area through a photolithographic process similar to methods used in semiconductor fabrication.... this method involves adding one base at a time to sequentially create oligonucleotides. Specific oligonucleotides can be placed at specific locations by the use of protective chemistry and lithographic masks. Because this combinatorial synthesis approach has a 95% efficiency at each step, synthesis of oligonucleotides longer than 25 bases is problematic. Because 25-residue oligonucleotides have limited specificity and binding affinity for gene expression analysis, mismatches and spurious target- probe binding can take place. 

In much of the literature, the term high-density oligonucleotide array is used as a generic synonym for Affymetrix GeneChip. Google = about 1,290 July 10, 2002; about  4,210 Sept. 16, 2003  Broader terms oligonucleotide arrays, oligonucleotide chips, oligonucleotide microarrays, microchips.

hybridization arrays:  DNA hybridization arrays are currently the most widely used tools for large- scale analysis of gene expression and other genomic- level phenomena and patterns. In all DNA array formats, gene- specific sequences (probes) are immobilized on a solid- state matrix (nylon membranes, glass microscope slides, silicon/ ceramic chips) and then queried with nucleic acids from biological samples (targets). In gene expression studies, for instance, the amount of target that hybridizes to the gene- specific probe gives a measure of the abundance of that particular transcript within the sample. . ;;; We generally will use the generic terms "DNA array" or "hybridization array" when we are referring broadly to all types of arrays.   Google = about 337 July 10, 2002; about  889 Sept. 16, 2003  Also called hybridization array assays

in situ arrays: Oligonucleotides are constructed on the matrix.  From the Latin "in situ" in place.  Google = about 28 July 10, 2002; about 50  Sept. 16, 2003

in situ synthesis: One further nuance with ink- jet oligonucleotide microarrays is that it is possible to synthesize the oligonucleotides on- the- fly directly on the array surface. The process entails sequentially spraying each spot with the chemicals needed to add the next base to a growing DNA molecule, washing off the excess, and going on to the next base. The advantage is flexibility. To change the DNA that will be placed on an array, you simply give the machine a new list of sequences to synthesize. 

LabChipR : was a Caliper product.

lab-on-a-chip:  forum for the publication of significant and original work related to miniaturisation, at the micro- and nano-scale, of interest to a multidisciplinary readership. The journal seeks to publish work at the interface between physical technological advancements and high impact applications that are of direct interest to a broad audience…. papers should demonstrate novelty in both: (i) the device physics, engineering, and materials; and (ii) applications in biology, chemistry, medicine. .. Novel micro- and nano-technologies and fundamental principles Micro- and nano-fabrication (including 3D printing, thin films), Micro- and nano-fluidics (in continuous and segmented multiphase flow, droplet microfluidics, new liquids), Micro- and nano-systems (sensor, actuator, reaction), Micro- and nano-separation technologies (molecular and cellular sorting), Micro- and nano-total analysis system (µTAS, nTAS), Digital microfluidics, Sample preparation, Imaging and detection  Significant biological, chemical, medical, environmental and energy applications Nucleic acid biotechnology and analysis (DNA and RNA sequencing, genotyping, gene manipulation), Protein analysis (proteomics and metabolomics for targeted and global analysis), Medical diagnostics (for example point of care and molecular), Medical devices and treatments (including implantable and wireless), Drug development (screening and delivery), Cells, tissues, organs on chip and integrated tissue engineering, 3D cell culture, Single cell analysis, Cell and organism motility and interactions, Systems and synthetic biology and medicine, Energy, biofuels, fuel extraction, Environmental and food monitoring for health and security Lab on a chip scope note

Google = about 9,300 July 10, 2002; about  21,500 Sept. 16, 2003; about 952,000 Apr 9, 2007

macroarrays:   A macroarray is up to 8 x 12 cm with spots of 1 mm or more, and typically contains hundreds to a few thousand spots.

Up to 8 x 12 cm membranes with anywhere from hundreds, to thousands of genes. ... Macroarrays can be thought of as the most technologically basic form of hybridization arrays. The idea of macroarrays grew from early hybridization experiments against cDNA libraries. These arrays consist of probes spotted onto a solid matrix of nylon, nitrocellulose, or plastic. Unlike microarrays, macroarrays rely on radioactivity instead of fluorescent tags for target labeling. Generally, macroarrays contain fewer genes than microarrays or high- density oligonucleotide arrays, and their density typically ranges from 200 to 10,000 genes. A wide variety of macroarrays are commercially available for many different organisms and genes. Macroarrays can also be constructed in- house through methods similar to those used to create microarrays. ... , the simplicity of these arrays is a major drawing point. ...  given their high sensitivity to small changes in gene expression, macroarrays are particularly well suited to specialized applications such as gene expression analysis in small tissue samples   Narrower term: nylon macroarrays.
Google = about 865 July 10, 2002; about 15,700  Sept. 16, 2003 

microarrays: Microarrays (in which nucleic acids representing genes are spotted onto or synthesized on a substrate and then tested against a sample) gauge mRNA levels - and thus gene expression. With these tools, many different genes can be studied, enabling expression patterns to be discerned in, for example, diseased versus normal tissue or in early- stage disease tissue versus late- stage disease tissue.  Microarrays  has additional definitions and microarray links. Google = about 95,700 July 10, 2002; about 276,000  Sept. 16, 2003

microchip analytical procedures: The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices. MeSH 2005 

microchips:  A microchip (sometimes just called a "chip") is a unit of packaged computer circuitry (usually called an integrated circuit) that is manufactured from a material such as silicon at a very small scale. Microchips are made for program logic (logic or microprocessor chips) and for computer memory (memory or RAM chips). Microchips are also made that include both logic and memory and for special purposes such as analog-to-digital conversion, bit slicing, and gateways. []  Related terms: Nanoscience & Miniaturization

microelectronic arrays:  One of the newer formats for hybridization arrays, are the result of a combination of advances in molecular biology and semiconductor microfabrication techniques. Instead of being based on a membrane or a glass- slide platform, these arrays consist of sets of electrodes covered by a thin layer of agarose coupled with an affinity moiety (permitting biotin- avidin immobilization of probes). Each microelectrode is less than 100: M in diameter and is capable of generating a controllable electric current that can be used to draw probes, samples, and reagents to specific locations on the chip surface. The limiting factor in the number of genes these arrays can cover is how many electrodes can be made within the area of the array.

These arrays, based on semiconductor microfabrication techniques, are made up of microelectrodes capable of generating a current that can be used to draw probes, samples, and reagents to specific locations on the chip. This approach allows faster, more controlled hybridization.  Also called microelectronic chips See also under multiplex DNA hybridization arrays  Google = about 77 July 10, 2002  "microelectronic chips = about 506; about  193  Sept. 16, 2003 about 858

microfluidics based chips: These chips, which contain tiny channels in which the movement of  fluids is controlled, allow the integration and miniaturization of a range of laboratory processes. Because of their small scale, these devices require much lower quantities of chemicals and test materials than those used in traditional molecular- biological approaches. 

multiplex DNA hybridization arrays:  We will use the term DNA array for any matrix containing multiple gene- specific sequences that permits simultaneous evaluation of hundreds to thousands of individual genes. This term will include nylon- membrane- based arrays (so- called macroarrays), microscope- slide- based arrays (microarrays), silica chips with high- density oligonucleotides constructed in situ (the Affymetrix GeneChip), and microelectronic arrays (a unique combination of addressable electrodes and gene- specific fragments). All these formats fall under the description multiplex DNA hybridization array. However, common usage in the field frequently refers to all these formats as microarrays

nylon macroarrays: High density membranes, in which cDNA colonies or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products are regularly arranged with a spot spacing (“pitch”) of 1 to 2 mm have been used for some time with expression measurements with radioactive complex probes. [Note] There is a certain tendency by some firms to call their macroarrays “microarrays”.  [S Granjeaud “Expression profiling: DNA arrays in many guises” BioEssays 21: 781-790 Sept 1999] Broader term: macroarrays

oligo arrays, oligo chips: See oligonucleotide arrays, oligonucleotide chips, oligonucleotide microarrays

oligonucleotide arrays:  Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations … or expression or for gene mapping. [MeSH, 1999 ‘oligonucleotide array sequence analysis’, Google = about 3,370 July 10, 2002; about 12,500  Sept. 16, 2003

oligonucleotide chips: See oligonucleotide arrays, oligonucleotide microarrays
Google = about 294 July 10, 2002; about 760  Sept. 16, 2003

oligonucleotide microarrays: With oligonucleotide arrays, the DNA used as the probe is synthesized based on the sequence of the gene. Since oligonucleotides are shorter than genes, there is considerable flexibility as to which part of the gene sequence to synthesize, and software is employed to select good sequences. Google = about 1,120 July 10, 2002; about 6,330  Sept. 16, 2003  Related term: Affymetrix GeneChips.

planar arrays:  Microarrays with transducers? Does this refer to the dimensions? Google = about 1240 July 10, 2002; about  2,490 Sept. 16, 2003 

RNA biochips: Advanced versions of our prototype RNA biochip can be used to see many different targets like drugs, toxins and metabolites, as well as both proteins and nucleic acids," he [Ronald Breaker] says. "We even have a molecular switch that can be triggered indirectly by UV light. In other words, our RNAs fold into intricate 3-D structures that selectively recognize a wide range of targets, a function that is similar to antibodies. Therefore, advanced RNA biochips should be able to be used to detect almost anything that an RNA can be made to bind." Yale scientists create RNA biochip" Yale Bulletin and Calendar 29 (26) April 13, 2001 

Google = about 21 July 10, 2002; about 77  Sept. 16, 2003; about 69 Feb. 28, 2005

reverse microarrays:  Deter Stoll et. al, Microarray Technology: an increasing variety of screening tools for proteomic research, Drug Discovery Today Microarray supplement 9(24): S10-17, 15 Dec. 2004

SNP chips: Microarrays used for genome wide genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 
Google = about 93 July 10, 2002; about  258 Sept. 16, 2003; about 370 Feb. 28, 2005 
Related terms SNPs & other Genetic variations SNP

small molecule microarrays: One technique for screening small molecules uses glass slides that have been machine-printed with an array of dots, each dot containing different small molecules. This is known as a small molecule microarray. Each slide contains 12,000 small dots, corresponding to 12,000 different small molecules. The slides are then washed with a single known protein that has been tagged with a fluorescent marker. If the protein binds with a small molecule on the slide, it will glow, indicating that the small molecule contained in that particular dot is a potentially useful one for studying that particular protein function. HHMI Biointeractive
Google = about 87 July 10, 2002; about 424  Sept. 16, 2003

spotted arrays:  A solid surface (often a glass microscope slide) onto which spots of DNA, each of which represents a specific gene, have been placed in a regular, rectangular pattern. [ More precisely, each spot represents a specific transcript of a specific gene. ... A spotted microarray is much smaller [than macroarrays] : 2.5 x 7.5 cm (1" x 3") with spots in the 100 mm range. Google = about 412 July 10, 2002; about 1,250  Sept. 16, 2003 
Related terms: cDNA arrays, spotted microarrays

spotted microarrays: A solid surface - often nothing more than a glass microscope slide - onto which spots of DNA, each of which represents a specific gene, have been placed in a regular, rectangular pattern. More precisely, each spot represents a specific transcript of a specific gene.  Google =  about194 July 10, 2002; about 699  Sept. 16, 2003 
Related terms: cDNA arrays, spotted arrays; See also microarrays - categories

substrate chips: Analyse the net proteolytic potential of the entire functional protease degradome towards a particular substrate without identifying the active proteases that are involved. This is important information, as the net cleavage of a particular substrate determines the biological response. Protease Degradomics: A New Challenge for Proteomics, Carlos Lopez- Otin & Christopher M. Overall, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 3, 509 -519, 2002 
Related terms: -Omes & -omics  degradome, degradomics

suspension arrays:  The maturation of approaches to perform highly parallel analyses using suspension arrays of microspheres with different morphospectral features is making flow cytometry an important tool in protein and genetic analysis. In this paper, we review the development of suspension array technology (SAT), current applications in protein and genomic analysis, and the prospects for this platform in a variety of large scale screening applications. [JP Nolan, FF Mandy, "Suspension array technology: new tools for gene and protein analysis" Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 47 (7) : 1241- 1256. Nov. 2001

synthetic DNA arrays: "Synthetic DNA arrays" Alan Blanchard

theme arrays: Microarrays containing genes thought to be involved in specific diseases or processes. 

tiling arrays: Used to refine the precise exon structures of genes in a genomic region of interest, described in D.D. Shoemaker et. al "Experimental annotation of the human genome using microarray technology" Nature 409, 922-927, 15 Feb. 2001. Google = about 97 July 10, 2002; about 194  Sept. 16, 2003 
Related term exon arrays. Cell & tissue technologies  flow cytometry

transcript arrays: Uses patterns to interrogate gene function  Google = about 32 July 10, 2002; about 56  Sept. 16, 2003

ultra high density microarrays: Contain hundred to thousands to millions of features. Able to run many types of assays, not just DNA hybridization. Related term: bead based arrays. Broader term density of microarrays, high density oligonucleotide arrays

universal arrays: Universal microarray technology provides a one-size-fits-all solution that is adaptable to studying any combination of expressed genes. Google = about 87 July 10, 2002; about  190 Sept. 16, 2003

universal microarrays:  The category of universal microarrays applies to both the two- dimensional and bead categories. Whereas conventional arrays contain immobilized oligonucleotides that are complementary to the target SNP sequences, universal microarrays contain sequences complementary to sequences appended to the SNP- containing sequences. The actual SNP- detecting hybridization process occurs in the solution phase (providing a speed advantage). The array (a one- size- fits- all unit) then provides a means to capture labeled reaction products and localize them on the array for identification. Google = about 23 July 10, 2002; about  43 Sept. 16, 2003

whole genome oligonucleotide arrays: Google = about 60 Jan. 24, 2003; about  144 Sept. 16, 2003

How to look for other unfamiliar  terms

IUPAC definitions are reprinted with the permission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

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