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Therapeutic indications: 
Cardiovascular, CNS & neurology, Immunology, Infectious diseases, Inflammation glossary & taxonomy
Evolving Terminologies for Emerging Technologies
Comments? Questions? Revisions?  Mary Chitty 
mchitty@healthtech.com
Last revised March 04, 2014
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Alzheimer's Disease:  Alzheimer's Disease July 2012 Table of Contents | Tables and Figures

Antibacterial Drug Development 

antibacterial resistance: 
 
antibiotic R&D: The current crisis in antibiotic R&D is attributed to an industry pipeline with few late-stage candidates capable of combating the emergence and spread of novel, drug-resistant bacterial strains. Many experts consider the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance to be a paramount public health threat of the 21st century. While most resistant microbes continue to emerge in the hospital setting, more resistance is being found outside of the hospital environment. Nonetheless, only 2 new classes of antibiotics have reached the market over the past 30 years.  Insight Pharma Reports, Antibiotic R&D: Resolving the Paradox between Unmet Medical Need and Commercial Incentive 2008

anti-inflammatories: Anti-Inflammatories: Small Molecule Approaches April 23-24, 2014 • San Diego, CA Program | Register | Download Brochure

The hunt for new small molecules that target inflammation is heating up. Researchers are discovering that inflammation plays a central role in a wide range of diseases, from rheumatoid arthritis to cancer and Alzheimer’s. Current oral therapies such as Cox-2 inhibitors and NSAIDs can have undesirable and significant side effects with frequent use. The promising biologics on the horizon have the downside that they are more costly than small molecule therapeutics and cannot be taken orally. 

antivirals:  Even for companies that have achieved blockbuster status with one or more antiviral drugs, resistance to those drugs will always pose a threat. Thus, there is a constant need to update the development pipeline and consider novel ways to combine different antiviral drugs. This report explores clinical development activities in HIV, HCV, and influenza and the market drivers in these areas, as well as: How the evolution of drug resistance among viruses drives both the pace and direction of antiviral development, Approaches to antiviral drug design and the potential for antiviral combination therapy, Antiviral development activities for the unmet-medical-need niches of poliovirus, West Nile virus, and smallpox.  Antiviral Pipeline: HIV, HCV, and Influenza Insight Pharma Reports, 2010

asthma: See under inflammation

autism: No single parameter, or combination of parameters, has been unambiguously corroborated as a cause of human autistic disorders. No medications have been proven to be efficacious in the treatment of the core social or communication impairment seen in autism. Some of its other symptoms or frequent comorbidities (aggression, hyperactivity, and seizures) can be managed with currently available drugs. If passed into law, the "Combating Autism Act of 2005" could massively expand the number of autism diagnoses within a few years, creating skyrocketing demand for prescription medications.  Insight Pharma Reports, Autism: A Developmental Disorder That Is Massively on the Rise. Unmet Needs,  Part of Insight Pharma Reports, Sleeper diseases: Forecast and Assessment of Neglected Disease Market Opportunity, 2006  http://www.insightpharmareports.com/reports/2006/62_Sleeper_Diseases/overview.asp#a 

autoimmune diseases: Biologics for Autoimmune DiseasesBiologics for Autoimmune Diseases May 5-6, 2014 • PEGS Boston, MA Program | Register | Download Brochure

Autoimmune Diseases: Pipelines for Crohn’s Disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis describes pipeline activities across these three diseases. Autoimmune Diseases: Pipelines for Crohn's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis July 2011 Table of Contents | Tables and Figures


 

biodefense: we heard from industry leaders about their strategy for meeting the needs of the community and bridging the technology gaps that still exist. New assays will be introduced that are highly multiplexed, integrated and field deployable. Technology developments in sample prep, signal transduction and amplification will be showcased, and specific examples of integrated systems will be presented. Dual-use application is an essential feature for products to have utility in biodefense and clinical settings. Systems Integration in Biodefense, Aug.2 008, Washington DC  Order CD   Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodefense  

biofilms: Are composed of populations or communities of microorganisms adhering to environmental surfaces. These microorganisms are usually encased in an extracellular polysaccharide that they themselves synthesize. Biofilms may be found on essentially any environmental surface in which sufficient moisture is present. [John Lennox, et. al., Biofilm Primer, Penn State Univ. Altoona, US ] http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/j/e/jel5/biofilms/primer.html

May be involved in a number of human bacterial infections.

BioIT World Weekly Therapeutics clinical http://www.bio-itworldweekly.com/category/11/therapeutics-clinical/ 
BioIT World Weekly Therapeutics Indications http://www.bio-itworldweekly.com/category/12/therapeutics-indications/ 

blood brain barrier:
CNS diseases are a major focus of the pharmaceutical industry, with CNS drugs representing some of its most successful products. However, drug discovery and development researchers experience difficulty developing CNS drugs that complete clinical trials and win regulatory approval—especially drugs which meet major unmet needs in the CNS area, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The vast majority of drugs fail to cross the BBB, which is causing a major bottleneck in successful development of CNS drug candidates.  This report reviews the discovery, design and development of small- and large-molecule drugs that can efficiently cross the BBB. This includes more traditional, medicinal chemistry-based methods, as well as approaches that exploit carrier-mediated transport (CMT) and receptor-mediated transport (RMT).   Insight Pharma Reports, Blood Brain Barrier: Bridging options for drug discovery and development

blood substitutes: Human blood, plasma and tissue contain many proteins, the extraction and purification of which are of great medical and economic importance. Transmission of infectious diseases via blood transfusion, tissue implantation and the use of processed blood plasma and components have placed a high priority on the development of new strategies for safeguarding the health of millions of patients who receive blood and tissue-derived products every year. The screening of blood for the detection of infectious agents is continuing to advance but is complicated by the presence of new and emerging pathogens. In addition, cost- effectiveness and the threat of emerging and/or crossover infective agents must also be considered. 

BSE:  Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or mad cow disease).  [UK Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Scientific & Medical Terms, Univ. of Edinburgh, UK, 1997 ] http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/glos.htm   See also TSE

CJD Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: The most common human SE [spongiform encephalopathy] which is characterised by a rapidly progressive dementia. Identified in the 1920s through the work of Creutzfeldt and Jakob.  UK Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Scientific & Medical Terms, Univ. of Edinburgh, UK, 1997  http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/glos.htm  Related terms: BSE, blood & blood substitutes, TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy  Narrower term: vCJD Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 

cardiac disease: Guidance for industry, Somatic cell therapy for, FDA 2010 http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/CellularandGeneTherapy/ucm164265.htm 

cardiac proteomics: Our research program focuses on the characterization of signaling pathways and cellular organelles in the heart, with a particular interest on alterations of sub­proteomes during myocardial alchemic injury. Since 1992, this research program has authored 110 manuscripts in cardiac cell signaling and myocardial ischemic injury. The functional proteomic approaches we employ have provided key information pertaining to the proteomic basis of diseased cardiac phenotypes, and enabled a holistic portrait of multiple molecules and pathways in parallel. Cardiac proteomics & Signaling Laboratory UCLA http://signalingmodules.org/

cardiogenomics: CardioGenomics is one of eleven Programs for Genomic Applications (PGAs) funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the NIH. The PGA initiative was funded in September of 2000 with the mission of advancing functional genomic research related to heart, lung, blood, and sleep health and disorders. A key feature of the PGA initiative is that all data, information, educational materials and reagents are made publicly available, and the scientific community is given access to these products and made aware of the each PGA's activities via the web.

The primary goal of the CardioGenomics PGA is to begin to link genes to structure, function, dysfunction and structural abnormalities of the cardiovascular system caused by clinically relevant genetic and environmental stimuli. The principal biological theme to be pursued is how the transcriptional network of the cardiovascular system responds to genetic and environmental stresses to maintain normal function and structure, and how this network is altered in disease. Cardiogenomics, Harvard Medical School,   http://cardiogenomics.med.harvard.edu/pga-overview  

Cardiome Project: an international effort aimed at developing a large scale coupled computational model of the beating heart, from gene to whole organ level, by incorporating detailed measurements of cardiac anatomy, tissue structure/properties, and cellular properties. http://www.biomedtown.org/biomed_town/STEP/Reception/step-definitions/CardiomeProject Related term: lipoproteomics

cardiovascular diagnostics: Cardiovascular diseases continue to be an enormous medical and cost burden on the health care system. As the rapidly aging population drives an increase in the incidence and prevalence of heart disease, the need for early detection and intervention will escalate dramatically. Insight Pharma Reports, Cardiovascular Diagnostics: Key Developments in Technologies and Markets, 2005 http://www.insightpharmareports.com/reports/2005/49_CardioDx/overview.asp 

cardiovascular models: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment. MeSH 1980

cognome, human: The Human Cognome Project seeks to reverse- engineer the human brain, paralleling in many ways the Human Genome Project and its success in deciphering the human genome. Analytical techniques used in the Human Cognome Project include: studying brain biology and chemistry in wet lab experiments, studying brain structure using frozen tissue sample scanning and imaging, studying brain activity and function using active brain imaging, (which is improving both spatial and temporal resolutions in successive technology generations), studying brain development though the field of morphogenesis, studying brain disease, injury and dysfunction through the fields of brain pathology, neurology and psychopharmacology, and studying psychology relative to brain structure and function through neuropsychology, Wikipedia, accessed Aug. 9, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Cognome_Project
Robert Horn, Stanford, Beginning to concepturalize the Human Cognome Project http://www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/a/topic/cognom/tocCncptlzHumnCognome.html  

cosmetic psychopharmacology: Peter Kramer, Listening to Prozac, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_D._Kramer  

diabetes: Diabetes has serious consequences if it is not well treated. In 2010, the global prevalence of diabetes was estimated to have reached 285 million and it is predicted to reach 438 million in 2030. Available agents provide imperfect control of the disease, and the medical need for better therapies is widely recognized. Insight Pharma Reports Diabetes Pipeline: Intense Activity to Meet Unmet Need  2010 

diabetes drug discovery:

diagnostics H1N1: Swine Influenza A is now known as 2009 H1N1 Influenza (2009 H1N1).
Guidance for Industry & FDA staff, FDA, 2009 http://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/GuidanceDocuments/UCM188679.pdf%C2%A0 
Guidance for industry, Reagents for detection of Specific Novel Influenza A Viruses , FDA 2006 http://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/GuidanceDocuments/ucm071274.pdf  Broader terms: molecular diagnostics  Related terms: biodefense, BSE, CJD, molecular piracy, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, pathogenomics, pathology informatics, pathome, prion, PrP, PrPC proteins, PrPSc proteins, TSE, vCJD;  Omes & omics microbiome

diagnostics infectious diseases: Molecular diagnostics


emerging infectious diseases:
Those whose incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. Emergence may be due to the spread of a new agent, to the recognition of an infection that has been present in the population but has gone undetected, or to the realization that an established disease has an infectious origin. Emergence may also be used to describe the reappearance (or "reemergence") of a known infection after a decline in incidence." , Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID)?: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States , Institute of Medicine Report, US, 1992 quoted at "What are EIDs?, ProMED, American Federation of Scientists,  2001.http://www.fas.org/promed/about/index.html
See also Scope Note Emerging Infectious Diseases
, CDC, US http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/about.htm published monthly  

Hepatitis C HCV Drug discovery: This is an exciting time for the field of HCV antivirals. Viral protease and polymerase inhibitors are in late stage clinical trials, as are combinations of them, suggesting an interferon-free drug cocktail to treat HCV may one day be possible. Progress is also being made on small molecule drug candidates that inhibit host proteins involved in the maturation/processing of HCV particles. 

Human Microbiome: The Common Fund's Human Microbiome Project (HMP) aims to characterize the microbial communities found at several different sites on the human body, including nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract, and to analyze the role of these microbes in human health and disease. NIH Common Fund, Human Microbiome Project, 2011  http://commonfund.nih.gov/hmp/ 

immunogenetics: Concerns that branch of genetics that deals with the genes which regulate the immune response. Immunogenetics arose in the 1960s born out of interest in the human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) and their role in transplant acceptance and rejection. The idea that the immune response is under genetic control however predates the clinical need to study HLA, and its origins can be traced back to earlier in the 20th century, with truly great scientists (Landsteiner, Gorer, Snell, Medawar, and Dausset, to name but a few). (Current and up to date. Immunogenetics was never a science that was restricted to studies of HLA. The ABO blood groups, immunoglobulin, and complement gene polymorphisms have long been included in the list. More recently, however, we have come to understand the extent of polymorphism in the human genome, and have realised almost any gene that encodes an immune active product can act as an “immune response gene.”  Most studies to date have been concerned with the human MHC, but an increasing number of investigators are now focussing on other immunogenes that affect both innate and acquired immunity to self and foreign antigens.  P T Donaldson, Genetics of liver disease: immunogenetics and disease pathogenesis, Gut. 2004 April; 53(4): 599–608  doi: 10.1136/gut.2003.031732  

immunogenomics The immunogenomics data analysis working group (IDAWG) is an international collaboration ofhistocompatibility and immunogenetics investigators who share the goal of facilitating the sharing of immunogenomic data (HLA, KIR, etc.) and fostering the consistent analysis and interpretation of those data by the immunogenomics community and the larger genomics communities. The working group was formed in advance of the 16th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW) and Conference with the intent to present its recommendations on topics of data-management and data-analysis at the 16th IHIW and Conference in 2012. IDAWG projects continue in anticipation of the 17th IHIW meeting to be held in 2017. http://www.immunogenomics.org/    See also systems immunotechnology;  Clinical & Medical informatics immunoimformatics

immunological models: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment. MeSH 1995

immunotherapy: Biologics

infectious diseases:
Global sales of anti-infective drugs reached $44.5 billion in 2005 and will likely double over the next 5 years. Antibiotics led the category at $31 billion. ... This report analyzes the factors driving infectious disease therapeutic and diagnostic markets, the key business and technology trends, targets and drugs in development, companies at the forefront of anti-infective R&D, and the commercial opportunities and challenges of anti-infective drugs and vaccines. Past hurdles to pursuing anti-infective drug development―including historically low margins, short therapeutic regimens, manufacturing challenges, and regulatory problems associated with developing drugs for “unvalidated” microbial targets―are no longer discouraging entrants. Insight Pharma Reports, Infectious diseases: R&D Challenges and Market Drivers, 2006

infectious disease models: Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS) is a collaboration of research and informatics groups to develop computational models of the interactions between infectious agents and their hosts, disease spread, prediction systems and response strategies. The models will be useful to policymakers, public health workers and other researchers who want to better understand and respond to emerging infectious diseases. If a disease outbreak occurs, the MIDAS network may be called upon to develop specific models to aid public officials in their decision-making processes. National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Initiatives/MIDAS/ 

infectious disease ontology: http://infectiousdiseaseontology.org/page/Main_Page

inflammation: The human immune system can go awry, either attacking an individual’s body or producing an exaggerated response to a foreign substance that is normally benign. In these situations, immunotherapies are needed to balance or suppress the unwarranted immune response. This report identifies nearly 400 ongoing product candidates and development programs in these indication areas. The companies active in these areas range from multinational pharmaceutical companies with a number of active programs to small boutique start-ups working on a very defined topic. Many of these programs involve “new” targets as well as a range of small-molecule and biological candidate therapeutics. The result is an extremely active, industry-wide product development race. Insight Pharma Reports, Inflammatory Disorders: Therapies That Suppress or Balance the Immune Response 2009  

The pharmaceutical industry is exhaustively exploring novel targets in the search for new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases. Delving in-depth into these efforts, this report provides: An analysis of six diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and asthma An assessment of existing drug therapies for these diseases  Discussion of pharmacological R&D strategies being employed by the industry in developing both biological and small-molecule agents for these diseases  Review of the approximately 200 compounds in clinical development and assessment of particularly noteworthy drug candidates for these diseases Inflammatory Directions: Strategies for Six Diseases with Unmet Needs  2008 Insight Pharma Reports
Related term: anti-inflammatories

lipid lowering drugs:  SWOT analysis Insight Pharma Reports, Metabolic Syndrome, Pipeline Analysis and US Market Forecast , 2005 

lipoproteomics: Karlsson H, Leanderson P, Tagesson C, Lindahl M, Lipoproteomics I: mapping of proteins in low-density lipoprotein using two- dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry Proteomics. 5(2): 551-65, 2005 Feb  Related term: cardiogenomics

metabolic syndrome: Is a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerotic disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus comprising obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The eligible treatment population in the U.S. for these four conditions is currently 40 million patients and will nearly double over the next 15 years, bringing unprecedented social and economic impacts. Insight Pharma Reports, Metabolic Syndrome, Pipeline Analysis and US Market Forecast report, 2005 http://www.insightpharmareports.com/reports/2005/44_Metabolic_Syndrome/overview.asp 

microbial proteomics:  Bacterial genomes encode all possible virulence determinants, vaccine candidates, and potential drug targets. Further, a completed genomic sequence establishes a basis for high throughput analysis of the proteins expressed (i.e., the proteome). Respiratory pathogens have been among the first to have their genomes entirely sequenced.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae harbors the second smallest genome of any self- replicating life form and encodes 679 putative proteins. These genome- predicted proteins will be correlated with those actually present, detecting any biological event that generates a protein of different molecular composition than that predicted. These include sequence or reading frame errors, imprecise bioinformatics, co- or post- translational modifications, and mutational or proteolytic strategies for antigenic variation. [Neil Kelleher "Enzymology and Proteomics" Dept. of Biochemistry, Univ. of Illinois - Urbana Champaign, US, 2000] http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~bioch/kelleher.html    Related term: Omes & omics glossary microbiome

neglected diseases: to make a significant impact in targeting neglected tropical diseases, many issues are at stake and need to be addressed. Which diseases are most prevailing and which present newly emerging targets for developing therapeutics? Are there novel opportunities for collaborations? How can the communication and collaboration between the developed and the underdeveloped countries be improved and what are the most pressing issues? Can lessons learned be adapted to different countries or for different diseases? What are the current strategies pursued by consortia and collaboration efforts? And lastly – is there a good way for dealing with IP issues and concerns?  Encouraging Development of Therapeutics for Neglected Diseases March 12-13, 2012 • Philadelphia, PA Program | Register | Download Brochure
Encouraging Development of Therapeutics for Neglected Diseases

neuroceuticals:  http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2006/02/neuroceuticals.html Related terms: cogniceuticals, neuropharmaceuticals

NeuroCommons: We use ontologies to help make sure that when we capture a scientific finding in the form of RDF, the meaning of what we have said in RDF is as clear as it can be. Not only does such clarity increase a scientist's confidence in an RDF statement, it also permits the statement to be linked with other statements that use the same terms. Linking might be accomplished either through syntactic matching (e.g. SPARQL query) or automated inference (e.g. description logic reasoner).  ScienceCommons 2008  http://neurocommons.org/page/Ontologies   
NeuroCommons background briefing
http://sciencecommons.org/projects/data/background-briefing   

neurodegenerative diseases:  Neurodegenerative diseases are drawing immense interest from the pharmaceutical industry and have inspired heavy competition in the race to introduce the next generation of improved drugs. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are analyzed in this report, which: Reviews their symptoms and pathology, presumed causes, methods of diagnosis, epidemiology, Examines existing drug therapies for each disorder, Surveys the R&D picture for each disease, Tabulates the approximately 150 compounds in clinical development , Discusses particularly noteworthy drug candidates. .  Insight Pharma Reports.  Neurodegenerative Diseases: Next-Generation Drugs for Four Major Disorders: Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 2008  

neurogenome: The total number of genes functionally expressed in the human nervous system. [Roger Rosenberg "Genomic Neurology: A New Beginning" Archives of Neurology 58: 1739- 1741, Nov. 2001] http://archneur.ama-assn.org/issues/v58n11/fpdf/ned10002.pdf

neurogenomics:  CNS disorders affect a vast patient population and represent a huge area of unmet therapeutic need. In the United States alone, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflict more than 6.5 million people. Drug discovery efforts for the most prevalent CNS diseases have met with varying success; it is estimated that billions of dollars are spent every year on prescription drug sales, however, many current therapies merely treat the symptoms but do not provide cures. Insight Pharma Reports,  Neurogenomics and Neurotherapeutic Strategies: New Directions in Platforms, Targets, and Therapeutic Approaches, report  2005 http://www.insightpharmareports.com/reports/2005/45_Neurogenomics/overview.asp 

The NIH Neurogenomics Project is dedicated to furthering functional genomics research, by utilizing phenotype-driven, or forward genetics, techniques to identify genes. The overall objective has been to use ENU-mutagenized C57BL/6J mice to identify neurobehavioral mutations in five domains. The project uses a three-generation breeding scheme to produce homozygous mutants to recover both recessive and dominant mutations. Phenotypic screens focus on five primary domains: neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress, learning and memory, psychostimulant response, vision, and circadian rhythm. NIH Neurogenomics Project at Northwestern Univ, US http://genomics.northwestern.edu/neuro/about.cfm  
NIH Neurogenomics Project at Northwestern Univ
. US http://genomics.northwestern.edu/neuro/ 

neuroimmune network, neuroimmunoendocrinology, neuroimmunomodulation:   Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia http://www.copewithcytokines.de/cope.cgi?006171

neurological models: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment. MeSH 1977

neuropharmaceuticals: Drugs targeting the central nervous systems.  The blood brain barrier poses a formidable drug delivery challenge.  CHA Cambridge Healthtech Advisors,  Neurogenomics and Neurotherapeutic Strategies: New Directions in Platforms, Targets, and Therapeutic Approaches report, 2005   Related terms: cogniceuticals, neuroceuticals, neuroinformatics

neuroproteomics: now proteomics gives way to neuroproteomics as we begin to unravel the complex mysteries of neurological diseases that less than a generation ago seemed opaque to our inquiries, if not altogether intractable. ... Bolstered by each new discovery, researchers employing multiple methods of inquiry gain a deeper understanding of the key biological problems related to brain function, brain structure, and the complexity of the nervous system. … Approaches discussed in the book include mass spectrometry, electrophoresis, chromatography, surface plasmon resonance, protein arrays, immunoblotting, computational proteomics, and molecular imaging. Neuroproteomics Frontiers in Neuroscience Edited by Oscar Alzate, CRC Press 2010 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/books/NBK56018/                   .

Protein profiling related to CNS cells, tissues and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. 

neurotherapeutics: Current therapies for neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases leave much to be desired. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are an increasing burden on the health care systems of the developed countries as the proportion of their elderly population rises. As for psychiatric disorders, their social and economic impact can be measured by the fact that antipsychotics and antidepressants account for nearly a quarter of total sales for the world’s top 10 best-selling drugs. Potential Breakthroughs in Neurotherapeutics: Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Depression, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia report, 2006   Related term: neurogenomics

obesity drug pipeline: Obesity is involved in the pathogenesis of major diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Yet there are no sufficiently safe and effective obesity drugs on the market today. Disease pathways of obesity are poorly understood and appear to be dependent on many genetic and environmental factors. Researchers and companies have been using what is known about energy balance pathways to design obesity drugs. Insight Pharma Reports Obesity drug pipeline: Developing therapies for a complex disease, 2008 http://www.insightpharmareports.com/reports_report.aspx?id=81172&r=653 

ocular disorders: Targeting Ocular Disorders  October 6-7, 2014 • Boston, MA Program | Register | Download Brochure

ophthalmology market: The ophthalmology market, although a relatively small niche in the pharmaceutical industry, is more than worthwhile to track because: It is growing dynamically, and will likely continue this development unbroken for the next 2 or 3 decades. It offers scientific challenges that are definitely tough but not insurmountable, with the paths to success already discernible.  It is a market that analysts and investors can understand. Severe eye diseases are debilitating but not terminal conditions, and therefore most people know at least 1 person with severe vision impairment and can sympathize—which on the whole creates a more favorable basis for investments.  Insight Pharma Reports,  Ophthalmological Therapeutics: Pipelines, Delivery Technologies, and Markets, 2008   

pain - animal models of: Many are frustrated with the lack of translational progress in the pain field, in which huge gains in basic science knowledge obtained using animal models have not led to the development of many novel, clinically effective compounds. A careful reexamination of animal models of pain is therefore warranted. In this course, I will describe the current implementation of animal models of pain, discuss a wide range of modulatory factors affecting data obtained within them, lay out the case for the replacement of current models by more sophisticated ones, and describe progress toward that goal. Animal Models of Pain DVD  June 9, 2009 •  

pain therapeutics:
  Novel Drug Targets and Screening ToolsNovel Drug Targets and Screening Tools  May 21-22, 2014 • Boston, MA Program | Register | Download Brochure

pathogenomics: Our project utilizes a combination of informatics, evolutionary biology, microbiology and eukaryotic genetics to identify pathogen genes which are more similar to host genes than expected, and likely to interact with, or mimic, their host’s gene functions. In addition, potential pathogenicity islands in genomes are being identified. A database of these genes is being built, which will be updated in an automated fashion, based on the increasing number of pathogen genomes being sequenced. Candidate functions identified by our informatics approach will be tested in the laboratory to investigate their role in pathogen infection and host interaction. Tests will include studies of both the pathogen gene and any homologous C. elegans gene, as C. elegans will be used as a model host organism for some pathogens. Public databases of all analyses used and all genes identified using our approach will be made available on this website. Pathogenomics, British Columbia, Canada, 2002  http://www.pathogenomics.bc.ca/

The development of genomic technologies and bioinformatics to provide novel opportunities for studying life- threatening human pathogens with great potential of enhancing human health. Summary of the expert workshop on the European Research Agenda (WP 3), 2005  http://www.pathogenomics-era.net/datapool/page/90/WP3-Helsinki-sept-05.ppt.

M. Nose Origin of the diversity and similarity of pathological manifestations of collagen disease: lessons from murine models in an aspect of pathogenomics Article in Japanese Ryumachi 40(5): 833- 848 Oct. 2000  

phyloproteomics:  Identification of unknown bacterial isolates based on similarities within protein biomarker databases. [Gregory C. Conway et. al. "Phyloproteomics: Species Identification of Enterobacteriaceae Using Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time- of- Flight Mass Spectrometry" J. Mol. Micro. Biotechnol. 3: 103-112, 2001 

prion: 
PROteinaceous INfectious agent. The prion theory suggests that the infective agent of CJD (and the other TSEs) is only composed of a protein and does not contain nucleic acid which would be necessary if the agent was a conventional virus.  [UK Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Scientific & Medical Terms, Univ. of Edinburgh, UK, 1997 ] http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/glos.htm

Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT- JAKOB SYNDROME and GERSTMANN- STRAUSSLER SYNDROME.  [MeSH, 1986]  Related terms: BSE, CJD, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center NPDPSC, PrP, TSE, vCJF

PrP protein:  The prion protein. This is a normally occurring protein found on the surface of particular cell types - PrPC. The abnormal form PrPCJD (or PrPScrapie) accumulates in the disease brain and is thought to be the main (or only) constitutent of prions.  [UK Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Scientific & Medical Terms, Univ. of Edinburgh, UK, 1997 ] http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/glos.htm

PrPC proteins: Normal cellular isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) encoded by a chromosomal gene and found in normal and scrapie- infected brain tissue, and other normal tissue. PrPC are protease- sensitive proteins whose function is unknown. Post- translational modification of PrPC into PrPSC leads to infectivity. [MeSH, 1995] 

PrPSc proteins: Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES). MeSH, 1995

psychogenomics: Used here to describe the process of applying the powerful tools of genomics and proteomics to achieve a better understanding of the biological substrates of normal behavior and of diseases of the brain that manifest themselves as behavioral abnormalities. Applying psychogenomics to the study of drug addiction will lead to the identification of genes and their protein products that control the reward pathways of the brain and their adaptations to drugs of abuse, as well as variations in these genes that confer genetic risk for addiction and related disorders. EJ Nestler, Psychogenomics: opportunities for understanding addiction, J Neurosci. 21(21): 8324- 8327, Nov 1, 2001 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11606619&query_hl=38  

psychoneuroimmunology: The Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society is an international organization for researchers in a number of scientific and medical disciplines including psychology, neurosciences, immunology, pharmacology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases, endocrinology and rheumatology, who are interested in interactions between the nervous system and the immune system, and the relationship between behavior and health.  https://www.pnirs.org/index.cfm  Related terms: neuroimmune network, neuroimmunoendocrinology, neuroimmunomodulation

sleeper diseases: Sleeper diseases comprise a broad spectrum of increasingly recognized conditions with various degrees of neuropsychiatric involvement. Many of these conditions are now clearly defined, earning them increasing acceptance as real disorders that can and should be addressed by pharmacotherapy. Covers autism; compulsions, phobias, panic attacks; chronic fatigue system, fibromyalgia, eating disorders, restless leg syndrome.   Insight Pharma Reports, Sleeper diseases: Forecast and Assessment of Neglected Disease Market Opportunity, 2006

systems immunotechnology Our group’s overall research interests are in the emerging field of experimental systems immunology, which is at the intersection of molecular biotechnology and immunology. Research in systems immunology is focused on gaining a more comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the immune system. This includes the use of high-throughput molecular technologies such as next generation DNA sequencing, quantitative proteomics, bioinformatics, and protein engineering. These approaches enable us to develop an immunological toolbox capable of addressing a wide spectrum of human diseases. For example, immunoglobulin repertoires (antibodies and TCRs) can be quantitatively profiled by high-throughput DNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics. These tools are providing an unprecedented level of information depth on the distribution of adaptive immune cell functionalities and diversity, which develop upon activation following vaccination, pathogenic infection, or disease.

The Laboratory for Systems Immunotechnology aims to develop applied technologies relevant to vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Additionally, fundamental questions related to pathogen-host immune responses are being explored using a systems-based approach.  Laboratory for Systems Immunotechnology ETH Zurich, Switzerland http://www.bsse.ethz.ch/lsi/  See also immunogenomics

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE: This meeting will address the ongoing progress in the science of prion diseases, as well as the newest developments in the fields of pathophysiology, transmission, detection, removal/inactivation, and prevention and will present the newest data on TSE’s in the context of its application to the pharmaceutical, biological, environmental and device industries. Topics which may be included are: advances in basic prion science, new transmissibility data, current results of human and animal tissue screening, new methods for strain typing, genetic susceptibility to the agent, risk assessment and management, TSE prophylaxis and treatment, prion protein structure and its implications for test development, prevention, cure and removal or inactivation. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies February 11-12, 2008 • San Francisco, California  Order CD   Broader term: Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease; Related terms: BSE,  Variant Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease vCJD,  blood & blood substitute

vCJD Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A rare and fatal human neuro- degenerative condition. Like Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease (CJD), vCJD is classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) because of characteristic spongy degeneration of the brain and its ability to be transmitted. vCJD is a new disease which was first described in March 1996. WHO "Variant Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease vCJD" 2001 http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact180.html

viral genotyping: Sequencing

Bibliography
Therapeutic indications Conferences: http://www.healthtech.com/Conferences/Search.aspx?k=&r=&s=RXXS
Therapeutic indications CDs, DVDs http://www.healthtech.com/Conferences/CompactDiscSearch.aspx?k=&r=&s=RXXS
Therapeutic indications Short courses http://www.healthtech.com/Conferences_Upcoming_ShortCourses.aspx?s=RXXS

Therapeutic indications Insight Pharma Reports http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Therapeutic-Reports/
Alzheimer's Disease http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=473975
Autoimmune http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=473977
Blood disorders http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=473978
Cardiovascular http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=473980
CNS http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=473981
Diabetes http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=473982
Epidemiology http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=473983
Obesity http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=476446
Respiratory http://www.insightpharmareports.com/Reports_All_Reports.aspx?t=473987


MeSH Medical Subject Headings, PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh 

Alpha glossary index
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