You are here Biopharmaceutical Glossary Homepage  > Drug discovery & development > Therapeutic areas: Cardiovascular, CNS, Immunology, Infectious, Inflammation

Therapeutic indications: 
Cardiovascular, CNS & neurology, Immunology, Infectious diseases, Inflammation
glossary & taxonomy
Evolving Terminologies for Emerging Technologies
Comments? Questions? Revisions? 
Mary Chitty MSLS
Last revised January 08, 2020

SCOPE NOTE: cardiovascular:
CNS & Neurology Alzheimer's, autism, blood brain barrier, neurodegenerative
Immunology: autoimmune, diabetes, inflammation
Infectious diseases: antibacterials, antivirals, blood substitutes

Drug discovery term index   Informatics term index   Technologies term index    Biology term index  
Related glossaries include Cancer   Drug discovery & development   Drug safety & Pharmacovigilance   Molecular & Predictive Medicine 

Antibacterial Discovery and Development September 26-27, 2018 Boston, MA Program | New discovery platforms, novel screens and approaches are vital for the discovery of new antibacterials and for ceasing the dangerous trends of multidrug microbial resistance. Gram-negative bacteria are one of the main challenges for the healthcare system and public health in general. Gram-negative bacteria have specific scientific problems such as low permeability of the outer membrane that must be overcome, complicated and multiple resistance mechanisms, etc.

antivirals:  Antivirals: Targeting HBV and Beyond September 25, 2018 Boston, MA Program  Antiviral drug development is shifting its focus to hepatitis B virus (HBV) after the encouraging success of developing direct-acting antivirals against the hepatitis C virus. Both viruses cause liver disease and represent major global health problems that can lead to death from liver failure. Much of the research focuses on broadly applicable antiviral approaches that modulate the host’s immune system or other infection response processes. Host immunomodulatory strategies are also being applied for treating emerging viral diseases. Progress has also been made in several HBV-specific approaches such as RNAi to silence HBV gene production, or inhibit the virus’ capsid assembly, which are in early-stage clinical trials or may be soon.

autistic disorder A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V) MeSH Medical Subject Headings Year introduced: 1981(1966)

Autoimmune and Inflammation Drug Targets September 27-28, 2018 Boston, MA Program   focuses on small molecule and peptide or macrocyclic-based agents that have the potential to be developed into oral-based therapies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation disorders. The success of biologics for autoimmune diseases coupled with rapid advances in basic research has validated many immunology-relevant signaling pathways and uncovered new intracellular molecules to target for potential new drug agents that can enter the cell. Discovering oral-based therapies, which offer patient convenience, for autoimmune and inflammation conditions is a high priority in the drug discovery industry because of the chronic nature of many autoimmune and inflammation conditions and the fact that their incidence is predicted to steadily increase due to the growing aging population.

biodefense:  Biodefense World Summit 2019 June, San Diego CA  pathogen detection, point-of-care, biosurveillance, sample prep technologies, and bio recovery.

blood brain barrier:  See Drug Delivery blood brain barrier

blood substitutes: Human blood, plasma and tissue contain many proteins, the extraction and purification of which are of great medical and economic importance. Transmission of infectious diseases via blood transfusion, tissue implantation and the use of processed blood plasma and components have placed a high priority on the development of new strategies for safeguarding the health of millions of patients who receive blood and tissue-derived products every year. The screening of blood for the detection of infectious agents is continuing to advance but is complicated by the presence of new and emerging pathogens. In addition, cost- effectiveness and the threat of emerging and/or crossover infective agents must also be considered. 

BSE:  Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or mad cow disease). See also TSE

CJD Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease:  Related terms: BSE, blood & blood substitutes, TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy  Narrower term: vCJD Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 

cardiac disease: Guidance for industry, Somatic cell therapy for, FDA 2010 Guidance for Industry - FDA  

cardiovascular models: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment. MeSH 1980

CNS Targets June 18=19 2019, Boston MA  A greater understanding of CNS related disease biology and the emergence of new, improved targets and technologies is bringing renewed interest, excitement and investment into this transformative area of medicine.  Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s CNS Targets and Translational Strategies conference focuses on the key issues of CNS drug development – including CNS target discovery and validation, biomarkers, bridging the preclinical/ clinical translation gap, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of current preclinical models, challenging “gold-standards”, understanding mechanism of action, dose selection, neuroimaging, neuroinflammation, neuroimmunology, and more

CNS and Neurodegenerative Targets  September 26-27, 2018 Boston, MA Program |  The identification of therapeutic targets based on novel mechanistic approaches is urgently needed for CNS and neurodegenerative diseases, particularly for conditions such as Alzheimer’s which represent extensive unmet medical need and blockbuster potential for the right therapy.  Driven by an improving understanding of CNS disease biology and the emergence of new mechanisms and targets, Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s CNS and Neurodegenerative Targets conference profiles the latest tools, targets and platforms driving today’s CNS drug discovery strategies, with critical updates and findings in key areas such as new targets for misfolded proteins, tau, GCPRs, kinase inhibitors, genetics, gene therapy, and neuroinflammation.

cosmetic psychopharmacology:    Peter Kramer, Listening to Prozac, Wikipedia  

emerging infectious diseases: See Scope Note Emerging Infectious Diseases, CDC, US published monthly  

Gram Negative Pathogens Targeting September 27-28, 2018 Boston, MA Program |  Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are one of the main challenges for the healthcare system and public health in general. Gram-negative bacteria have specific scientific problems, such as low permeability of the outer membrane that must be overcome, complicated and multiple resistance mechanisms, etc.

immunogenetics: Concerns that branch of genetics that deals with the genes which regulate the immune response. Immunogenetics arose in the 1960s born out of interest in the human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) and their role in transplant acceptance and rejection. The idea that the immune response is under genetic control however predates the clinical need to study HLA, and its origins can be traced back to earlier in the 20th century, with truly great scientists (Landsteiner, Gorer, Snell, Medawar, and Dausset, to name but a few). (Current and up to date. Immunogenetics was never a science that was restricted to studies of HLA. The ABO blood groups, immunoglobulin, and complement gene polymorphisms have long been included in the list. More recently, however, we have come to understand the extent of polymorphism in the human genome, and have realised almost any gene that encodes an immune active product can act as an “immune response gene.”  Most studies to date have been concerned with the human MHC, but an increasing number of investigators are now focussing on other immunogenes that affect both innate and acquired immunity to self and foreign antigens.  P T Donaldson, Genetics of liver disease: immunogenetics and disease pathogenesis, Gut. 2004 April; 53(4): 599–608  doi: 10.1136/gut.2003.031732  

immunogenomics The immunogenomics data analysis working group (IDAWG) is an international collaboration of histocompatibility and immunogenetics investigators who share the goal of facilitating the sharing of immunogenomic data (HLA, KIR, etc.) and fostering the consistent analysis and interpretation of those data by the immunogenomics community and the larger genomics communities. The working group was formed in advance of the 16th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW) and Conference with the intent to present its recommendations on topics of data-management and data-analysis at the 16th IHIW and Conference in 2012. IDAWG projects continue in anticipation of the 17th IHIW meeting to be held in 2017.    See also systems immunotechnology;  Clinical & Medical informatics immunoimformatics

immunological models: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment. MeSH 1995

Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Antibodies Autoimmune, Infectious and Neurological Diseases  August 13-14, 2020 Boston, MA With the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases expected to increase significantly over the next decade, the challenge of effectively treating autoimmune diseases, and the continuing issue of infectious diseases remaining a leading cause of mortality worldwide, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. In many cases, the best hope for better health outcomes lies in exploiting the immune system to achieve therapeutic effect.

immunotherapy: Biologics  immunotherapy cancer

infectious disease diagnostics:
Advanced Diagnostics for Infectious Disease  May 2019 • Lisbon Portugal Program | Recent advances in technology have rapidly changed the landscape of infectious disease diagnostics. Novel technologies (and new uses for already standard technologies!) such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry are changing the way that researchers perform rapid diagnostics and detect antimicrobial resistance. 

infectious disease models: Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS) is a collaboration of research and informatics groups to develop computational models of the interactions between infectious agents and their hosts, disease spread, prediction systems and response strategies. The models will be useful to policymakers, public health workers and other researchers who want to better understand and respond to emerging infectious diseases. If a disease outbreak occurs, the MIDAS network may be called upon to develop specific models to aid public officials in their decision-making processes. National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH

infectious disease ontology:

Inflammation Inhibitors Medicinal Chemistry for Oral-Based Autoimmune and Inflammation Related Therapeutics APRIL 10-11, 2019 San Diego CA Efforts to find and develop small molecule-based drug agents for combatting inflammation and autoimmune-related conditions is intensifying in the drug discovery industry. The first oral-based treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor, was launched a few years ago. The focus on oral-based anti-inflammatory agents (which are mostly small molecules though some macrocyclics and constrained peptides can also penetrate cells) is not only because oral-based therapeutics afford greater patient convenience, but also because of the rapidly accumulating scientific knowledge of the myriad of intracellular molecules involved in inflammation and autoimmune-related conditions.

lipoproteomics: Karlsson H, Leanderson P, Tagesson C, Lindahl M, Lipoproteomics I: mapping of proteins in low-density lipoprotein using two- dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry Proteomics. 5(2): 551-65, 2005 Feb  Related term: cardiogenomics

microbial proteomics:  Bacterial genomes encode all possible virulence determinants, vaccine candidates, and potential drug targets. Further, a completed genomic sequence establishes a basis for high throughput analysis of the proteins expressed (i.e., the proteome). Respiratory pathogens have been among the first to have their genomes entirely sequenced.

Molecular Diagnostics for Infectious Disease March 2-4, 2020 San Francisco, CA  Advancing Molecular Diagnostics to Improve Detection and Patient Outcome With NGS assays moving into clinical use and new technologies being developed for a host of infectious diseases, it is more important than ever to keep on top of the latest advances in the field. Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s 4th Annual Molecular Diagnostics for Infectious Disease symposium will discuss in detail the process of moving sequencing into clinical use, with an examination of reference vs. clinical labs, metagenomics vs. panel-based tests, investments in bioinformatics, and physician education. We will also examine rapid susceptibility testing in the light of the new breakpoints, how they are used, and the role genotypic vs. phenotypic testing. Special attention will also be paid to new technologies for host response and clinical applications of microbiome analysis. We will also have a discussion centered around the regulatory landscape for NGS diagnostics and what to expect as we will look into the future of molecular diagnostics for infectious disease.

NASH and Fibrosis September 17-18, 2019 Boston, MA | Drug development for the fatty liver Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disease of the liver that starts with an accumulation of fat and proceeds to inflammation and scarring of the liver. The scarring begins as fibrosis, but can worsen to cirrhosis and eventual liver failure. The global incidence of NASH is rapidly rising and no medical treatments exist. Advances in the scientific understanding of the fibrotic disease process in other organs are also rapidly occurring.

neuroceuticals: Related terms: cogniceuticals, neuropharmaceuticals

NeuroCommons: The NeuroCommons project seeks to make all scientific research materials - research articles, knowledge bases, research data, physical materials - as available and as usable as they can be. We do this by fostering practices that render information in a form that promotes uniform access by computational agents - sometimes called "interoperability".

neurological models: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment. MeSH 1977

neuropharmaceuticals: Drugs targeting the central nervous systems.  The blood brain barrier poses a formidable drug delivery challenge.  Related terms: cogniceuticals, neuroceuticals, neuroinformatics

neuroproteomics: now proteomics gives way to neuroproteomics as we begin to unravel the complex mysteries of neurological diseases that less than a generation ago seemed opaque to our inquiries, if not altogether intractable. ... Bolstered by each new discovery, researchers employing multiple methods of inquiry gain a deeper understanding of the key biological problems related to brain function, brain structure, and the complexity of the nervous system. … Approaches discussed in the book include mass spectrometry, electrophoresis, chromatography, surface plasmon resonance, protein arrays, immunoblotting, computational proteomics, and molecular imaging. Neuroproteomics Frontiers in Neuroscience Edited by Oscar Alzate, CRC Press 2010 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/books/NBK56018/        

Protein profiling related to CNS cells, tissues and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. 

Neurotech Investing & Partnering Conference 2020 May 5-6 Boston MA  keynotes, investor panels, cutting-edge company presentations and a comprehensive selection of neurotech topics.

phyloproteomics:  Identification of unknown bacterial isolates based on similarities within protein biomarker databases. [Gregory C. Conway et. al. "Phyloproteomics: Species Identification of Enterobacteriaceae Using Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time- of- Flight Mass Spectrometry" J. Mol. Micro. Biotechnol. 3: 103-112, 2001 

Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT- JAKOB SYNDROME and GERSTMANN- STRAUSSLER SYNDROME.  MeSH, 1986  Related terms: BSE, CJD, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center NPDPSC, PrP, TSE, vCJF

PrPC proteins: Normal cellular isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) encoded by a chromosomal gene and found in normal and scrapie- infected brain tissue, and other normal tissue. PrPC are protease- sensitive proteins whose function is unknown. Post- translational modification of PrPC into PrPSC leads to infectivity. MeSH, 1995

PrPSc proteins: Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES). MeSH, 1995

psychogenomics: Used here to describe the process of applying the powerful tools of genomics and proteomics to achieve a better understanding of the biological substrates of normal behavior and of diseases of the brain that manifest themselves as behavioral abnormalities. Applying psychogenomics to the study of drug addiction will lead to the identification of genes and their protein products that control the reward pathways of the brain and their adaptations to drugs of abuse, as well as variations in these genes that confer genetic risk for addiction and related disorders. EJ Nestler, Psychogenomics: opportunities for understanding addiction, J Neurosci. 21(21): 8324- 8327, Nov 1, 2001  

psychoneuroimmunology: The Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society is an international organization for researchers in a number of scientific and medical disciplines including psychology, neurosciences, immunology, pharmacology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases, endocrinology and rheumatology, who are interested in interactions between the nervous system and the immune system, and the relationship between behavior and health.  Related terms: neuroimmune network, neuroimmunoendocrinology, neuroimmunomodulation

systems immunotechnology Our group’s overall research interests are in the emerging field of experimental systems immunology, which is at the intersection of molecular biotechnology and immunology. Research in systems immunology is focused on gaining a more comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the immune system. This includes the use of high-throughput molecular technologies such as next generation DNA sequencing, quantitative proteomics, bioinformatics, and protein engineering. These approaches enable us to develop an immunological toolbox capable of addressing a wide spectrum of human diseases. For example, immunoglobulin repertoires (antibodies and TCRs) can be quantitatively profiled by high-throughput DNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics. These tools are providing an unprecedented level of information depth on the distribution of adaptive immune cell functionalities and diversity, which develop upon activation following vaccination, pathogenic infection, or disease. The Laboratory for Systems Immunotechnology aims to develop applied technologies relevant to vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Additionally, fundamental questions related to pathogen-host immune responses are being explored using a systems-based approach.  Laboratory for Systems Immunotechnology ETH Zurich, Switzerland  See also immunogenomics

Therapeutic indications resources
Therapeutic indications Conferences:
Therapeutic indications CDs, DVDs
Therapeutic indications Short courses

Insight Pharma Reports therapeutic indications

How to look for other unfamiliar  terms


Contact | Privacy Statement | Alphabetical Glossary List | Tips & glossary FAQs | Site Map